This satellite session was co-organized by: IAS and The Division of Social and Behavioural Sciences (Public Health) South African Social Science and HIV (SASH) Programme in HIV Social Sciences at the University of Cape Town (UCT). The session addressed the many complex challenges raised by the initiation of anti retroviral therapy (ART) and adherence to ART. In the session researchers in social science and activists shared their experiences and findings and demonstrated how social science is helping to understand and address the problem and offered ways of overcoming these problems that are relevant to clinicians and public health practitioners. The need for mobilisation and activism after initiation of ART, the efforts to engage men in the long term, gender dimensions and the challenges faced by migrants were dealt with. The in-depth discussions were followed by a lively discussion among the 80 participants of the session. Panelists included: Hakan Seckinelgin (London School of Economics); Sanyu Mojola (University of Colorado at Boulder); Christina Zarowsky (University of the Western Cape); Christopher J. Colvin (University of Cape Town) and Phumzile Nywagi (Sonke Gender Justice Network).